Neurostimulation is the application of low intensity electrical pulses to the surface of the skin for the purpose of stimulating the underlying nerves and muscles. In recent decades, neurostimulation has been used as part of a treatment called Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) therapy to help restore mobility in the paralyzed limb muscles of stroke victims and those who have suffered spinal cord injuries. While carrying out research in areas such as pain reduction and sensory feedback, scientists have also used neurostimulation to study the effect of electrical current on neurons.
Historically, the delivery of neurostimulation has required the purchase of expensive, research-grade equipment or the expensive, time-consuming construction of custom hardware. NeuroStimDuino provides an open-source alternative in the form of an Arduino shield.
NeuroStimDuino was designed to help anyone with an interest in neuroscience—students, researchers, and hobbyists alike—to study the effects of neurostimulation on muscle contraction. It comes with an I²C interface through which external microcontroller boards like the Arduino Due can be used to generate different stimulation patterns and control other aspects of its operation. Each NeuroStimDuino shield has two independent output channels, which can be used to alternate the contraction of flexor and extensor muscles or to contract various muscles simultaneously. By stacking multiple shields, additional output channels can be made available.
Note: A single output channel on NeuroStimDuino is capped at 20 mA, which is sufficient to contract small muscles but insufficient to contract large ones. Large muscles can be contracted by combining the two output channels of NeuroStimDuinos in parallel.
NeuroStimDuino is a platform technology with many possible applications. It can be used to conduct research on how neurostimulation affects pain management and the restoration of mobility to paralyzed extremities. It can also provide sensory feedback to amputees and stimulate the transcutaneous vagus nerve to study the effects of neurostimulation on depression, arthritis, and other conditions.
WARNING: This instrument is intended for RESEARCH PURPOSES ONLY. It is not intended for human or animal use. Neuralaxy LLC does not assume responsibility for injury or damage due to the misuse of this instrument.
¹ Frequencies below 3 Hz and above 100 Hz are possible but require a firmware update. Please see our GitHub repository for additional details
|Max. Current Output||+/- 20 mA||105 mA||+/- 10 mA|
|Compliance Voltage||+/- 60 V||105 V||+/- 48 V|
|No. of Output Channels||2||2||1|
|Additional output channels possible by stacking||Yes||No||No|
|Onboard Current Measurement||Yes||No||No|
Note: The board layout for NeuroStimDuino v1.0 can be found in our GitHub repository.
Note: The pinout diagram for NeuroStimDuino v1.0 can be found in our GitHub repository.
For instructions and video tutorials on the placement of stimulation electrodes to evoke various muscle contractions, please refer to Electrode Placement & Functional Movement, courtesy of Dr. Lucinda Baker, Associate Professor (retired) at the University of Southern California and Axelgaard Manufacturing Co., Ltd. For NeuroStimDuino software and design files, please see our GitHub repository. If you have questions, you can use the Ask a technical question link below.
NeuroStimDuino is part of Microchip Get Launched
"Neuralaxy’s NeuroStimDuino is an open-source Arduino shield that allows students, researchers, and hobbyists to study the effects of neurostimulation on muscle contraction easily and cheaply."
Produced by Neuralaxy in Delaware, USA.
Sold and shipped by Crowd Supply.
One NeuroStimDuino board and a pair of 2-mm, pin-style lead wires for use with standard, reusable, hydrogel-based stimulation electrodes. Includes a battery holder but does not include batteries.
Four 1.25-inch round and four 2-inch square hydrogel electrodes, a pair of lead wires, and a pair of bifurcation cables
Delaware, USA · neuralaxy.com
Neuralaxy LLC is an early stage neurotechnology company based in Delaware, US. Its mission is to develop therapies that help patients suffering from paralysis and neuromuscular diseases, to recover their independence as well as lead a healthy, fulfilling life.
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